Energy and mass changes of the Eurasian permafrost regions by multi-satellite and in-situ measurements
|Title||Energy and mass changes of the Eurasian permafrost regions by multi-satellite and in-situ measurements|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2011|
|Authors||Muskett, RR, Romanovsky, VE|
|Type of Article||Peer-Reviewed Research Paper|
|Keywords||AIRS, carbon, cryosphere, GRACE, groundwater, Land-Surface Temperature, MODIS, Permafrost, Satellite Geodesy|
We investigate changes in total water equivalent mass, land-surface temperature and atmospheric CO2 by satellite-based measurements from August 2002 through December 2008. Our region of interest spans 75 to 165 ̊E and 50 to 80 ̊N centered on the Lena River watershed as a physical reference frame. We find energy and mass changes on the continuous and discontinuous permafrost zones indicating: 1) Arctic uplands such as the Siberian Plateau show strongly posi- tive water equivalent mass and strongly nega- tive land-surface temperature gradients during May months. 2) Arctic lowlands such as the thaw-lake regions of Kolyma, Lena Delta, and Taymyr show strongly negative water equivalent mass and strongly positive land-surface temperature gradients during September months. 3) Areas with strongly positive water equivalent mass and negative land-surface temperature gradients during May months have weakly posi- tive CO2 gradients 4) Areas with strongly nega- tive water equivalent mass and strongly positive land-surface temperature gradients during September months have strongly positive CO2 gradients. This indicates that continuous and discontinuous permafrost ecosystem responses are correlated in phase with energy and mass changes over the period. The Laptev and East Siberia Sea have increasing trends of CO2 atmosphere concentration 2.23 ± 0.15 ppm/yr and 2.40 ± 0.21 ppm/yr, respectively. Increasing trends and strong positive gradients of CO2 atmosphere concentration during Aprils-Mays are evidence that the Arctic Ocean is a strong emitter of CO2 during springtime lead formation. We hypnotize that the increasing CO2 from land and ocean regions is from permafrost thawing and degradation and ecosystem microbial activity.